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I recently finished reading Daniel M. Bell Jr.’s excellent little book, Just War as Christian Discipleship: Recentering the Tradition in the Church rather than the State. And while I have neither the time nor the inclination to write a full review, I figured I would post more than a few excerpts here over the next few days and weeks.

Bell’s book isn’t perfect, and there are a few areas where I think we are left with more questions than answers, but overall it is a very good introduction to just war history, theory, and practice from a distinctively Christian perspective, and its benefits and usefulness far outweigh its flaws.

While Bell avoids partisan debates for the most part he pulls no punches in speaking straightforwardly about what justice demands in the Christian tradition as it developed from the Augustine and the fathers (modified from Plato and the Greeks) through to Aquinas, Vitoria, and Grotius in the early modern period.it is an excellent introduction to the Just War tradition from a distinctively Christian perspective, and its strengths are much more prominent than its weaknesses.

After a brief history of Just War thinking, and making an important distinction between modern, secular, just war theory, what he calls Just War as public policy checklist or Just War (PPC), and Just War as Christian discipleship or Just War (CD), Bell asks the question, “Has there ever been a just war?”

"Such is the history, in brief, of the just war tradition since its adoption and adaptation by Christianity. What the history reflects is that war is not one thing always and forever, that it is no necessarily and inevitably “hell” as Sherman and others would have it. To the contrary, it is a human practice and as such is capable of being waged in different ways, from the highly ritualized and almost game-like wars of medieval chivalry that were minimally lethal (my favorite example being a yearlong war involving one thousand knights in the 1127 CE during which five died, four of those being the result of accidents), to the limited wars of attrition of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to the total wars that characterized significant wars of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

At the outset of this chapter, the question was raised as to whether war could ever be just. Both pacifists and realists suggest the answer is no. While the historical overview suggests that war need not be total, it does not provide an entirely satisfactory answer to the question of whether war can in fact be just. By itself it does not refute the skeptics. These skeptics sometimes pose the question of just war in a more pointed manner by asking, Has there ever been a just war?

Such a question threatens to plunge us into the midst of the culture wars and the ideological battles of the current moment. After all, there is no shortage of persons willing to proclaim this or that war just or unjust in a manner that appears to be driven more by the political fortunes of the moment than by any deep familiarity with the just war tradition. From the longer perspective of history, there are historians of war and of just war who have argue that there have indeed been just wars.

From a Christian theological perspective, however, the question of whether there has ever been a just war is largely beside the point. From the standpoint of the Christian moral life, it is the wrong question. After all, the Christian moral life does not depend on whether that life has ever been lived faithfully before or not. If Christians are called to be a just war people by God then the proper response to that call is not to step back and ask, Has anyone else done it before us? Rather, even if it means going forth like Abram and his family into the unknown and unprecedented (Heb. 11:8), the proper, faithful response is to discern how our life should be so ordered in response to that call that we might be a people who wage war or refrain from waging war in accord with the precepts of just war. In other words, the proper response to the call to just war is not, Has it been done before? but, How then should we order our live so that we might respond to the call faithfully?

Perhaps the misguided nature of the question will be clearer if we put a similar challenge to another facet of the Christian life. Take, for example, the Ten Commandments. We might ask if there has ever been a Christian community that has embodied them perfectly? Has there ever been a Christian church that has succeeded in living out even one of them perfectly? Or take the Great Commandment that we love God and our neighbor. Has there ever been a church that has followed that commandment without flaw or failure? That the answer to these questions is no does not in itself render the commandments invalid, irrelevant, or unrealistic. That the Christian church has displayed and in the course of its life continues to terrible failures with regard to both love of God and of neighbor does not abolish that calling or erase the reality of that love in its life. That we miss the mark, that we continue to struggle with sin, does not diminish either the high calling to or the reality of holiness and virtue in the life of the church. Our failure as a people does not disprove God’s call; neither does our repeated failure establish that we are not in fact capable of accepting and embodying that call. All of this means that even if one could definitively show that the church had never even once embodied the just war discipline in war, that in itself would not prove that just war was neither the church’s calling nor a real possibility in its life."

 
 
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Below is a rather woodenly literal translation of Psalm 1 I came up with a couple of years ago; and beneath that is a file containing the annotated version which explains the reasoning for various grammatical and lexical choices.  

Additionally, for anyone wishing to become better acquainted with the Psalter ('God's hymnbook') I would recommend this little volume published by Concordia Publishing House.  This book has a number of features to commend it: the translation is ESV which will be familiar and/or preferred by a growing number in Reformed and Lutheran circles; each Psalm is preceded by a short reflection from Luther's Summaries of the Psalms, 1531 and followed by a prayer; appendices include a division of the Psalms by category, a two week schedule for reading/singing the Psalms following the Daily Office, and another (four week during Ordinary Time) schedule for reading/singing the Psalms in conjunction with the Morning and Evening Prayer; but perhaps the most singularly commendable feature of this book is that the texts are pointed for singing/chanting and eight tunes (five major and three minor key) are provided at the front, any one of which may be used with any Psalm.  While there are quibbles to be had with the pointing, most notably that divisions are done by verse rather than by line meaning that occasionally you get an unnaturally long note which is hard to sing vigorously, overall it is still a great resource for those wishing to get in the habit of singing the Psalter.  It combines the resources needed to sing the Psalms (which they were intended to be) in a good translation with some really great brief devotional material in a slim, well bound volume that is easy to toss in a book bag, stick in the glove box, etc.  And while singing/chanting may seem unnatural and difficult at first it really is worth the time and energy investment.  It's the best way to learn the Psalms, and it is much closer to how they were meant to be experienced than simply reading them.  


"The Psalter ought to be a dear and beloved book, if only because it promises Christ's death and resurrection so clearly and so depicts his kingdom and the condition of all Christendom that we may call it a little Bible.  Most beautifully and briefly it embraces everything in the entire Bible; it is made into a fine enchiridion, or handbook.  Therefore it seems to me that the Holy Spirit wanted to take the trouble of compiling a short Bible and a book of examples of all Christendom or of all saints, with the purpose in mind that whoever could not read the whole Bible would here have practically an entire summary of it, comprised in one booklet...

The Psalter is the book of all saints, and everyone, whatever his situation may be, finds psalms and words in it that fit his situation and apply to his case so exactly that it seems they were put in this way only for his sake..."

--Martin Luther (Reading the Psalms with Luther, pg. 7)



(1) O how happy is the man
         who walks not in the counsel of the wicked 
         and in the way of sinners does not stand 
         and in the seat of scorners does not sit.

(2) But rather in the teaching of Yahweh is his delight
        and in his teaching he murmurs, day and night.

(3) He is like a tree planted beside streams of water 
       which its fruit it gives in its time
       and its leaf does not wither.
       And all that he does prospers.

(4) Not so the wicked
      but rather (they are) like chaff that the wind drives away.

(5) Just so the wicked will not stand in the judgment, 
      and sinners in the congregation of the righteous.

(6) Because Yahweh knows the way of the of the righteous,
      and the way of the wicked will perish.

Psalm 1 Translation.doc
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